Racism and Ways to Lessen It

Affiliation: Ford, C. (April, “Critical Race Theory, Race Equity, and Public Health: Toward Antiracism Praxis.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100 (1), pp. 30-35.

Research question

The authors are asking the question on whether the Critical Race Theory together with its tools will succeed in elucidating racial phenomena as well as challenge the existing racial hierarchies. They hope to find out how they can use the success of the theory mentioned above to influence health and health inequalities affected by racism.

Theory/Past Literature

There is only one theory being tested in this research and that is the Critical Race Theory and which they have based their research question on. They have used previous research and work of racism by others from as early as 1735 as well as the recent journal articles which are related to the subject matter. The literature is purely secondary.

Methodology

The methodology used is purely secondary data as no primary research was carried out in this article. Since the research is based on secondary data, there are no samples to carry out the research. However, the population that was being targeted is the African-Americans since they are the commonly affected race by racism. The key variables in the research are race equity and public health. Public health is measured through health disparities and conditions of living while race equity is measured by the use of racial attitude and vocabulary. There is mention of any respondents since this research is based on secondary data as opposed to the primary data and research.

Findings

The authors found the theory to have several tools such as race consciousness which will assist in dealing with the challenges of race affecting the public health sector. Yes, it supports the hypothesis which similar to the research question pointed out that the critical race theory would be effective in elucidating and eliminating the challenges of racism in public health. The most significant is the fact that racism in public health is not totally hopeless but it can be eliminated and people of all races can get to enjoy health services without experiencing racial inequality. I have learned that racism incorporates so many aspects such as the tools of the theory and all of which act to cement the fact that racism exists in society and continues to affect public health. Yes, they link back to the theory as they point out that the tools of the theory can be useful in elucidating the racism experienced in public health.

 

Taxman, F., Bryne, J., and Pattavina, A. (2005). “Racial Disparity and the Legitimacy of the Criminal Justice System: Exploring Consequences for Deterrence.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 16, pp. 57-77.

Research question

The authors are asking whether the practices and processes present in the criminal justice system contribute to recycling individuals through the system and whether this affects selected communities. They hope to gather information about the legitimacy of the criminal justice system in deterring criminal behavior through an examination of their procedures and processes to different races and how this affects the individuals and communities.

Theory/Past Literature

There are three theories being tested in this article and they are procedural justice in the processes and procedures, collection and collective efficacy in the communities as well as the subcultural adaptations to meet the individual needs. The authors have relied purely on the literature on criminal justice, their processes and procedures as well as seeking evidence of their claims through statistics on the different races arrested and their offenses.

Methodology

Since the research in the article is based on secondary data and not primary data, then there is no methodology in this case. The population under consideration in the research is the Caucasians as well as the African-Americans and the research focuses heavily on their criminal data. The two key variables are the racial disparity and the criminal justice system. Racial disparity is being measured through the number of Caucasians and African Americans in jail and their crimes while criminal justice is through the procedures and processes of criminal justice. There is no number of respondents since this is secondary research and no a primary one hence no sample.

Findings

The findings reveal that the minority race is undermined by the procedures in the criminal justice system such as the arrests, detention, conviction, and probation showing a clear indication of racism being inexistent in the criminal justice system. The data supports the expectation of the authors who indicated at the beginning of the article that the criminal justice system procedures underscored the minority race. The most significant finding is that even with the procedures and processes’ being in place, racism is still eminent among the people who are supposed to be law enforcers such as the police, the lawyers and judges. The research solidifies my previous knowledge of the minority races especially the African- Americans being the target of the criminal justice system even with the laws being in place. The theories provide only a framework for the article and even though they require more in-depth research on them, they still support the conclusion about impartiality and lack of consistency in the criminal justice system.

References
Ford, C. (April 2010). “Critical Race Theory, Race Equity, and Public Health: Toward Antiracism Praxis.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100 (1), pp. 30-35.
Taxman, F., Bryne, J., and Pattavina, A. (2005). “Racial Disparity and the Legitimacy of the Criminal Justice System: Exploring Consequences for Deterrence.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 16, pp. 57-77.

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