Pulcini, Theodore. “Trends in research on Arab Americans.” Journal of American Ethnic
History (1993): 27-60.
The article is an assessment on the recent patterns of research on Arab Americans. The author assesses how the trend has changed over the years in coherence with the change in relations between America and the Middle East. After the attacks on the trade center people have been more critical on Arabs and at the same time research has increased on Arab culture. Arab immigrants are documented to have first arrived in America around the early 1900s. On this note the article illustrates the attitudes held towards Arabs in these times, and goes on to provide how these attitudes changed. Many authors wrote on Arabic immigrants as they were viewed as something exotic and different. Some Arabs such as Kahlil Gibran were praised. The author acknowledges the capability of Arabs to adapt to different environments This article will help in determining the origins of Khalil Gibran and other Arab writers from his time.
Naimy, Nadeem N. The Lebanese Prophets of New York. American University of Beirut,
The book is based on the works of Mikhail Naimy, Gibran Kahlil Gibran and Amin Rihani. The individuals had a significant influence on Arabic literature and several movements in the Arab world. The book is comprised of three essays on these individuals and how they were able to innovate new concepts of poetry and literary criticism. Many of Gibran’s works were inspired by The Book of Khalid especially one of his most popular books entitled The Prophet. However, the author criticizes Gibran of over simplicity and questions his status as one of the great reformers of his era. The article gives an excellent review of Gibran as a writer which will help me in my research.
Alwan, Mohammed Bakir. ” Bibliography of Modern Arabic Fiction in English
Translation.” Middle East Journal 26.2 (1972): 195-200.
The author illustrates that Arabic fiction literature can shed some information on its region of origin. He further states that it will help Westerners gain an understanding of the Arabic society and culture. The author states that among the fiction writers Gibran Khalil Gibran was one of the most popular short story writers. The author illustrates Gibran’s style and how it differed from other writers of his time. This was one of the attributes that made him popular. The author then compiles a bibliography of fiction writers and their works. This article will help in analyzing the background and environment which Gibran lived.
Ludescher, Tanyas. “From Nostalgia to Critique: An Overview of Arab American
Literature.” Melus (2006): 93-114.
The article is an introduction and summary of Arab American history and literature with the main emphasis on immigration. The author begins by summarizing the different waves of Arab immigration into the country and then focuses on the Majhar group. The author acknowledges the popularity of Khalil Gibran but states that most of his were overlooked by American critics. The author provides insight into the different themes that were utilized in the works of these individuals. These included the forceful surrounding culture and as well as the constraints restricting the Arabic community at this time. The article also speaks on the way in which the Arab immigrants were embraced in different periods, and how the Arab American image was later formed. The author concludes the article by discussing the new wave of Arabic literature, and the problems that these individuals are facing today after the tense relations between America and the Arab world. In my work, I will use the cultural differences and barriers that Gibran had to overcome and these were reflected in his work.
Naimy, Nadim. “The Mind and Thought of Khalil Gibran.” Journal of Arabic
Literature (1974): 55-71.
The author writes on the works of Khalil Gibran. He has significant praise for his works and states that if he was capable of formulating his own system of thought. The author gives some information about Gibran’s background however; the bulk of the article is on his works. The author states that Gibran being an emigrant poet was thrice alienated. The authors view Gibran as a poet who spent the majority of his life in alienation. Being a poet in a restricted community limited is the capability to express himself as well as to relate to other cultures. Gibran was not only prominent as an Arabic writer but also receives some accreditation for his works in English. The article will help with information on how Gibran used his life in his poetry.
Nassar, Eugene Paul, and Kahlil Gibran. “Cultural discontinuity in the works of Kahlil
Gibran.” MELUS (1980): 21-36.
The article is on the works of Gibran, starting with The Prophet, which received much praise from readers. The book is said to have sold over six million copies. The author emphasizes the difficulty Gibran faced as the book also received a significant amount of criticism. On this basis, he states that Gibran is commendable for being able to live between two cultures. Gibran’s roots, as well as his Western up, brings played a role in his life and mindset as a writer. He showed a great deal of appreciation for the western world for the values he had learned in this society. In addition, he was very proud of his Lebanese heritage. The author also acknowledges how Gibran’s works were a part of him and his feelings and emotions were illustrated in works. The article is helpful in illustrating the “two worlds” which Gibran lived in.
Khairallah. G. The Life of Gibran Khalil Gibran and His “Possession.” 1949. Books abroad
The book addresses the biography of Gibran and the works he did both with the brush and pen. The article also analyzes various works by Gibran and acknowledges how he was able to improve Arabic literature and help it progress from its previously stagnant form. In this era, the majority of Arabic literature was entrenched in traditionalism. The biography shows how different Arabic authors utilized literature and also enables the possibility to compare these authors.
Gates, C. L. “The Lebanese Lobby in the US.” MERIP Reports (1978): 17-19.
The article is an assessment on the Lebanese community and its relationship with different governments. The author also analyzes the impact different Lebanese groups have had on the government and how they led them to support Lebanese interest groups. There are many groups in the Lebanese community whose role was to support a particular agenda for the people. The paper will help me with information on the political influence of the country from a Lebanese perspective.
Hussein, Taha. “The Modern Renaissance of Arabic Literature .” World Literature
Today (1989): 249-256
The article analyzes the history of Arabic literature and the different barriers that existed in the past and reduced the progress of this work. It further illustrates the different obstacles that exist today. The author also states the potential that exists in Arabic literature and how historically many writers were able to endure through the many challenges despite being under-appreciated.
Moreh, Shmuel. “Poetry in prose (al‐shir al‐manthūr) in modern Arabic literature.”Middle
Eastern Studies 4.4 (1968): 330-360.
The article describes poetry in Arabic and the distinguishing attributes of this genre of writing. The article illustrates the uniqueness of the Arabic language and how it can easily become rhythmic even in prose writing. The author also illustrates the different styles of poets in the past.
Sheehi, Stephen. “Modernism, Anxiety and the Ideology of Arab Vision.”Discourse: Journal
for Theoretical Studies in Media and Culture 28.1 (2013): 5.
The paper is on romantic Arabic literature and how it illustrates the alienation of this community in historical times. The paper shows the different reforms that took place in this genre and towards the Arab American ethnicity. The article also shows the different attitudes that authors in the past had towards society. In the past the Arabic community was more reserved, however, there was less hostility than in modern times. Nevertheless, this will help gain insight into the environment Gibran lived.
Jahangiri, Azam. “A Study on Gibran Khalil Gibran’s Prose Style.” United States of America
Research Journal 2.2 (2014).
The author summarizes the different works by Gibran and touches on his unique style and approach towards the prose genre. The author focuses on his style and the different literary elements he used in his work. This shows how Gibran used emotions and his life experiences in his poetry and prose and how this differed in the two genres. The article will help assess Gibran’s work, particularly in this genre.